An Overactive Bladder, also known as OAB, causes frequent and sudden urgens to urinate that may be difficult to control. There is an urge to pass urine many times during the day and night, and you may also experience unintentional loss of urine (urgency incontinence).
Causes of OAB include:
PhysiologicalIncreased intake of fluids (especially, coffee, tea, carbonated drinks containing caffeine), alcohol, fruits, vegetables; cool/rainy weather, indoors (especially with air-conditioning)
PsychologicalAnxiety, stress, habit or social voiding and psychiatric conditions (e.g. obsessive compulsive neurosis)
PharmacologicalCertain medications like diuretics used to treat high blood pressure, heart, kidney or liver conditions, will increase urine production and cause frequent urination
EndocrinologicalDiabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus - deficiency or absence of the hormone insulin and anti-diuretic hormone respectively, resulting in increased urine production and output
Urinary tract infection, menopause, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic mass (uterine fibroid, ovarian cyst), bladder stone, bladder cancer, radiation treatment to bladder and pelvis, untreated heart failure, chronic cystitis, stress urinary incontinence, abnormal bladder contractions
The incidence of OAB increases with age, and it affects 11-22% of adults over 40 years old.