Down Syndrome is due to an extra chromosome (number 21). Half of all children with Down syndrome have a heart problem. These include Patent Ductus Arteriosus, Atrial Septal Defect, Ventricular Septal Defect, Tetralogy of Fallot and Atrioventricular Septal Defects.
When a person has a syndrome they have similar characteristics to others with the same syndrome. This may include their appearance and medical problems. Syndromes are variable and it is unusual for someone to have all the characteristics - they may therefore be only slightly affected. Down described this syndrome in 1866.
Some of these Heart Conditions that children with Down Syndrome suffer from may not require surgery as some may close by themselves (Patent Ductus Arteriosus, Atrial Septal Defect, Ventricular Septal Defect).